Saadat hasan manto, the most widely read and the most controversial short-story writer in urdu, was born on 11 may 1912 at sambrala in punjab's ludhiana district. in a writing career spanning over two decades he produced twenty-two collections of short stories, one novel, five collections of radio plays, three collections of essays, two collections of reminiscences and many scripts for films. he was tried for obscenity half a dozen times, thrice before and thrice after independence. not always was he acquitted. some of manto's greatest work was produced in the last seven years of his life, a time of great financial and emotional hardship for him. he died a few months short of his forty-third birthday, in january 1955, in lahore.